General Purpose Electronegativity Relaxation Charge Models Applied to CoMFA and CoMSIA Study of GSK-3 Inhibitors
Two fast empirical charge models, Kirchhoff Charge Model (KCM) and Dynamic Electronegativity Relaxation (DENR), had been developed in our laboratory previously for widespread use in drug design research. Both models are based on the electronegativity relaxation principle (Adv. Quantum Chem. 2006, 51, 139–156) and parameterized against ab initio dipole/quadrupole moments and molecular electrostatic potentials, respectively. As 3D QSAR studies comprise one of the most important fields of applied molecular modeling, they naturally have become the first topic to test our charges and thus, indirectly, the assumptions laid down to the charge model theories in a case study. Here these charge models are used in CoMFA and CoMSIA methods and tested on five glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibitor datasets, relevant to our current studies, and one steroid dataset. For comparison, eight other different charge models, ab initio through semiempirical and empirical, were tested on the same datasets. The complex analysis including correlation and cross-validation, charges robustness and predictability, as well as visual interpretability of 3D contour maps generated was carried out. As a result, our new electronegativity relaxation-based models both have shown stable results, which in conjunction with other benefits discussed render them suitable for building reliable 3D QSAR models.