Preparation, characterization and application of microwave-assisted activated carbons from wood chips for removal of phenol from aqueous solution
In this paper, activated carbons were prepared from lignocellulosic residue using microwave-induced chemical activation process, for removal of phenol (PhOH) from aqueous solutions. Wood chips and inorganic components (20% lime + 80% ZnCl (PZnCW-1.0; 2 or 20% PZnCW-1.5; lime + 40% ZnCl PFeZnCW-1.0; 2 + 40% FeCl PFeZnCW-1.5). 3) were mixed to The form mixtures pastes were with pyrolysed inorganic:organic in a ratios of 1.0 and 1.5 microwave in less than 11 min. Afterwards a 6 mol L−1 HCl was used to treat the carbonised materials, under reflux, to eliminate the inorganic components—producing the activated carbons (ZnCW-1.0; ZnCW-1.5; FeZnCW-1.0; FeZnCW-1.5). Elemental analysis, FTIR, mediary SEM, materials N 2 adsorption/desorption and activated carbons. curves, The TGA, XRD and X-ray fluorescence were used to characterise both inter- results indicated that activated carbons had an ordered mesoporous and microporous structure with a 0.14 and 0.27 cm 3g− 1. For the high S BET adsorption ranging from 647 to 914 m2g − experiment, pseudo first-order, 1, V tot of 0.34–0.52 cm 3g− 1 and V mes between pseudo-second order and Avrami fractional-or- der kinetic models were used to probe the kinetic of adsorption. Equilibrium time was attained after 10.4 min only. The maximum amounts of phenol adsorbed onto activated carbons at 25 °C were 434.2, 667.9, 256.5 and 233.5 mg g−1 for ZnCW-1.0, ZnCW-1.5, FeZnCW-1.0 and FeZnCW-1.5, respectively. ZnCW-1.0 and ZnCW-1.5 exhibited excellent performance in the treatment of simulated effluents contaminated with mixtures of phenols in a complex medium.