Tutorial on a chemical model building by least-squares non-linear regression of multiwavelength spectrophotometric pH-titration data

publication · 7 years ago
by Milan Meloun, Sylva Bordovska, Tomas Syrovy, Ales Vrana (University of Pardubice)
Although the modern instrumentation enables for the increased amount of data to be delivered in shorter time, computer-assisted spectra analysis is limited by the intelligence and by the programmed logic tool applications. Proposed tutorial covers all the main steps of the data processing which involve the chemical model building, from calculating the concentration profiles and, using spectra regression, fitting the protonation constants of the chemical model to multiwavelength and multivariate data measured. Suggested diagnostics are examined to see whether the chemical model hypothesis can be accepted, as an incorrect model with false stoichiometric indices may lead to slow convergence, cyclization or divergence of the regression process minimization. Diagnostics concern the physical meaning of unknown parameters βqr and var epsilonqr, physical sense of associated species concentrations, parametric correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit tests, error analyses and spectra deconvolution, and the correct number of light-absorbing species determination. All of the benefits of spectrophotometric data analysis are demonstrated on the protonation constants of the ionizable anticancer drug 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecine, using data double checked with the SQUAD(84) and SPECFIT/32 regression programs and with factor analysis of the INDICES program. The experimental determination of protonation constants with their computational prediction based on a knowledge of chemical structures of the drug was through the combined MARVIN and PALLAS programs. If the proposed model adequately represents the data, the residuals should form a random pattern with a normal distribution N(0, s2), with the residual mean equal to zero, and the standard deviation of residuals being near to experimental noise. Examination of residual plots may be assisted by a graphical analysis of residuals, and systematic departures from randomness indicate that the model and parameter estimates are not satisfactory.
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