N-Acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) has been reported to react with hydrogen peroxide in vitro to produce 4-(acetylamino)-2,4-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-octonic acid (ADOA). We labeled NANA and ADOA with 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-piperazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-PZ) for simultaneous detection. The derivatized NANA and ADOA were separated using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with fluorescence detection. The calibration curves of DBD-PZ-derivatized NANA and ADOA showed good linearity in the range of 221 fmol to 1.5 nmol, and 44 fmol to 1.5 nmol, respectively. This analytical method has high specificity and is useful for the detection of NANA and ADOA in saliva and serum.