A Grand Challenge: Unbiased Phenotypic Function of Metabolites from Jaspis splendens against Parkinson's Disease
A grand challenge in natural product chemistry is to determine the biological effects of all natural products. A phenotypic approach is frequently used for determining the activity of a compound and its potential impact on a disease state. Chemical investigation of a specimen of *Jaspis splendens* collected from the Great Barrier Reef resulted in the isolation of a new pterin derivative, jaspterin (1), a new bisindole alkaloid, splendamide (2), and a new imidazole alkaloid, jaspnin A (3) TFA salt. Jaspamycin (8) and 6-bromo-1*H*-indole-3-carboximidamide (16) are reported for the first time as naturally occurring metabolites. Known nucleosides (4–7, 9, 10), aglycones (11–13), indole alkaloids (14, 15, 17), and jaspamide peptides (18–22) were also isolated. The structures of the three new compounds 1–3 were unambiguously elucidated based on NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Jaspnin A (3) contained a rare thiomethylated imidazolinium unit. Coupling an unbiased phenotypic assay using a human olfactory neurosphere-derived cell model of Parkinson’s disease to all of the natural products from the species *J. splendens* allowed the phenotypic profiles of the metabolites to be investigated.