Clustering and Classifying Diverse HIV Entry Inhibitors Using a Novel Consensus Shape-Based Virtual Screening Approach: Further Evidence for Multiple Binding Sites within the CCR5 Extracellular Pocket

publication · 8 years ago
by Violeta I. Pérez-Nueno, David W. Ritchie, Jose I. Borrell, Jordi Teixidó (University of Aberdeen)
HIV entry inhibitors have emerged as a new generation of antiretroviral drugs that block viral fusion with the CXCR4 and CCR5 membrane coreceptors. Several small molecule antagonists for these coreceptors have been developed, some of which are currently in clinical trials. However, because no crystal structures for the coreceptor proteins are available, the binding modes of the known inhibitors within the coreceptor extracellular pockets need to be analyzed by means of site-directed mutagenesis and computational experiments. Previous studies have indicated that there is more than one binding site within the CCR5 extracellular pocket. This article investigates and develops this hypothesis using a novel spherical harmonic-based consensus shape clustering approach. The consensus shape approach is evaluated using retrospective virtual screening of CXCR4 and CCR5 inhibitors. Multiple combinations of CCR5 ligands in multiple trial superpositions are constructed to find consensus queries that give high virtual screening enrichments. Receiver-operator-characteristic performance analyses for both CXCR4 and CCR5 inhibitors show that the new consensus shape matching approach gives better virtual screening enrichments than existing shape matching and docking virtual screening techniques. The results obtained also provide strong evidence to support the notion that there are three main binding sites within the CCR5 extracellular cavity.
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