New practical algorithm for modelling analyte recovery in bioanalytical reversed phase and mixed-mode solid phase extraction
Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a widely used method for sample cleanup and sample concentration in bioanalytical sample preparation. A few methods to model the retention behaviour on SPE cartridges have been described previously but they are either not applicable to ionised species or are not suitable when using multiple wash and elution steps with solvents differing in volume, modifier concentration and acidity. Furthermore, these models were not applied to mixed mode SPE sorbents. In order to overcome these limitations a new SPE modelling algorithm was proposed. The retention behaviour was determined directly on the SPE cartridge by connecting the cartridge online with an HPLC system using a simple but suitable device that was developed and described. The results from these online experiments were used to model the elution behaviour using a quadratic retention function combined with an exponentially modified Gaussian peak shape model to predict analyte recovery under different wash and elution conditions. The validity of the proposed algorithm was tested using practical SPE experiments with an aqueous test mixture as well as with spiked human plasma. Different sequential wash and elution steps were performed using solvents differing in volume and composition. The predicted band shape and recoveries in each collected step were in good agreement with the results obtained from practical experiments. The proposed algorithm is very useful for the description of the SPE behaviour of the analytes on the actual used SPE cartridge and can be used in structural and automated SPE method development.Visit publication"